Treaty of Sugauli was signed between British East India Company & Gurkha of Nepal. The treaty was signed on 2 December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 following the Anglo-Nepalese War in the years 1814-16. The signatory for Nepal was Raj Guru Gajraj Mishra aided by Chandra Sekher Upadhyaya and the signatory for the Company was Lt. Col. Paris Bradshaw.
Why was The Treaty Signed?
The early 19th Century, the Gurkhas was emerging as a strong force in the Northern Plains of India majorly the area between Punjab and Calcutta. They manage to nearly take control of Major Parts of Himalayas and were eyeing Punjab under the expansion of Kingdom of Nepal started by Nepali King Prithvi Narayan Shah because of which Gurkhas were regular in conflict with Britishers.
A series of campaigns termed the Anglo-Nepalese War occurred in 1814–1816. In 1815 the British general Ochterlony evicted the Nepalese from Garhwal and Kumaon across the Kali River, ending their 12-year occupation, which is remembered for its brutality and repression.
When and Where Treaty was signed?
The Sugauli (Sanjauli) Treaty (also spelled Sugowlee and Segqulee) was drafted on 2 December 1815 and Signed on 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War in the years 1814-16. The treaty was signed in Sugauli (presently located in Indian State of Bihar) near the western banks of Kali river.
What were Terms & Result of the Treaty of Sugauli?
The Treaty of Sugauli cause a major embarrassment to the Gurkhas and gave a commanding control to Britishers. Here are the major terms & results of this treaty:
- About one-third of Nepalese territory was lost including all the territories that the King of Nepal had won in wars in the last 25 years or so such as Sikkim in the east, Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom (also known as Gadhwal) in the west.
- Much of Terai Land of South which was restored to Nepal in 1860 to thank Nepal for helping the British to suppress the Indian rebellion of 1857.
- Britain was allowed to recruit Gurkhas for military service. Nepal also lost the right to deploy any American or European employee in its service which were trained in the Nepalese Army.
- The British representative in Kathmandu was the first Westerner allowed to live in the post-Malla Era Nepal. The first representative was Edward Gardner, who was installed at a compound north of Kathmandu. That site is now called Lazimpat and is home to the Indian and British embassies.
- Nepal remained independent, but it received a British resident with the status of an ambassador to an independent country rather than of the controlling agent of the supreme government in an Indian state.
Future of this Treaty:
The Sugauli Treaty was superseded in December 1923 by a “treaty of perpetual peace and friendship,” which upgraded the British resident to an envoy. A separate treaty was signed with India (independent by now) in 1950 which established relations between the two countries.